- Stein called American intellectuals (congregated in Paris in postwar) the “Lost generation”
- The Lost Generation represented U.S. and European thought after the Great War.
- Intellectuals and Artists became disillusioned.
- 1920s: war novels (A Farewell to Arms) and (All Quiet on the Western Front): Shows pointless symbols of death and suffering
- Decline of the West
- Spengler proposed that all communities advance through a life cycle of growth and decay.
- The European society entered final stage of existence.
- A Study of History: Arnold J Toynbee
- Studied how societies develop through time.
- Analyzed genesis(origin), growth, and disintegration of twenty six societies.
- Religious Uncertainty
- Theologians established a religious bombshell titled Epistle to the Romans- Karl Barth
- In the Work, he condemned the liberal Christian theology(limitless improvement)
- Realization of God’s purpose
- Nikolai Berdiaev (Russian Orthodox thinker) “Man’s historical experience has been one of steady failure, and there are no grounds for supposing it will be ever anything else.”
- Attacks on Progress
- Great War demolished beliefs like universality of human feminina progress.
- Democracy was also attacked apon.
- Early 20th century: No more rights to own property and additional educational restrictions(right to vote): male suffrage.
- After Great War, women got more rights.
- This led to political involvement as people voted in elections.
- Intellectuals saw democracy as a decay and lacked positive values, many people idealized elite rule.
- Revolt of the Masses by Jose Ortega y Gasset
- Addressed readers about the masses who were destined to destruct the biggest accomplishments of western society.
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