Moda dos anos 80 feminina e masculinating


Sheetal Hari

Postwar Pessimism

  • Stein called American intellectuals (congregated in Paris in postwar) the “Lost generation”
    • The Lost Generation represented U.S. and European thought after the Great War.
  • Intellectuals and Artists became disillusioned.
    • 1920s: war novels (A Farewell to Arms) and (All Quiet on the Western Front): Shows pointless symbols of death and suffering
  • Decline of the West
    • Spengler proposed that all communities advance through a life cycle of growth and decay.
    • The European society entered final stage of existence.
  • A Study of History: Arnold J Toynbee
    • Studied how societies develop through time.
    • Analyzed genesis(origin), growth, and disintegration of twenty six societies.
  • Religious Uncertainty
    • Theologians established a religious bombshell titled Epistle to the Romans- Karl Barth
      • In the Work, he condemned the liberal Christian theology(limitless improvement)
        • Realization of God’s purpose
    • Nikolai Berdiaev (Russian Orthodox thinker) “Man’s historical experience has been one of steady failure, and there are no grounds for supposing it will be ever anything else.”
  • Attacks on Progress
    • Great War demolished beliefs like universality of human feminina progress.
    • Democracy was also attacked apon.
      • Early 20th century:  No more rights to own property and additional educational restrictions(right to vote): male suffrage.
    • After Great War, women got more rights.
    • This led to political involvement as people voted in elections.
    • Intellectuals saw democracy as a decay and lacked positive values, many people idealized elite rule.
  • Revolt of the Masses by Jose Ortega y Gasset
    • Addressed readers about the masses who were destined to destruct the biggest accomplishments of western society.  



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